Metabolics has put together a formulation providing important supplements that are known to be either crucial to energy production in the body or known to support the metabolic processes leading to energy production down to a cellular level.
Energymax is a proprietary blend of Magnesium, Alpha Lipoic Acid, D Ribose, Marine Pine Bark, Co Q10, L Carnitine, L Glutamine, L Taurine, Tyrosine, Betaine, Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12 and Folate.Cell division.
Alpha Lipoic Acid is a naturally occurring compound that is made in small amounts by humans. Supplemental Alpha Lipoic Acid can be activated by ATP and transferred to the enzymes in the mitochondria that depend on Alpha Lipoic Acid as a cofactor in critical reactions related to energy production and the breakdown of Alpha Keto Acids. These enzyme complexes then in turn catalyse the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A in the production of energy via the citric acid cycle.
In short, as an antioxidant, Alpha lipoic acid is vital in energy production in the cells, minimising free radical damage.
D Ribose is a sugar used by every cell in the body, being the main source of energy required for the creation of ATP. It is a crucial component of DNA and RNA.
A study using supplementation of D Ribose in chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia patients showed significant increase in energy and an average overall improvement in well being.
Marine Pine Bark is a powerful antioxidant helping the body deal with reactive oxygen species generated by extreme exercise or fatigue, Research has shown that it can enhance performance in athletes.
Ref: Pycnogenol increases human endurance during exercise by 21% providing antioxidant reserves. Pavlovic P. (1999) Improved endurance by use of antioxidants European Bulletin of Drug Research, 7 ( 2) : 26-29.
A further study in 2006 using normal subjects, athletes and diabetic patients concluded that supplementation with marine pine bark was effective in reducing pain and cramps.
Coenzyme Q10 is also involved in the production of energy (ATP) in the mitochondria of all cells. It is both synthesised in the body and consumed in the diet where it is absorbed in the small intestine and passes to the lymphatics and then to the blood and tissues. It is a powerful antioxidant in cell membranes and lipoproteins and helps convert carbohydrates and fats into energy. Within the cell CoQ10 works with an enzyme within the mitochondria to reattach the phosphate group, again making ATP. It is a continuous recycling system. As it performs its work, CoQ10 becomes a powerful antioxidant in the process. CoQ10 declines with age so it is particularly important to supplement.
L Carnitine plays an important role in energy production within skeletal and cardiac muscle. L carnitine is required for mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids for energy production and removal of the intermediate compounds and freeing of Coenzyme A to participate in pyruvate metabolism.
L Glutamine is synthesised in skeletal muscles and provides fuel for cells of the immune system that are dividing rapidly. It is also a precursor to glycogen production and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Over training is associated with decreased availability of glutamine in the cells. So basically L Glutamine acts as a source of cellular energy next to glucose.
L Taurine is synthesised in the liver via the enzyme degradation of cysteine or methionine. It is then incorporated into bile acids as cholic acid, producing taurocholic acid. It is found in the central nervous system, the retina ,skeletal muscle and heart. It is the most abundant amino acid in the extracellular fluid of the brain. Not only is aging associated with a decline of taurine, but taurine depletion is associated with the development of cardiomyopathy, indicating a role for taurine in maintaining normal muscle contraction and skeletal muscle. This function of taurine appears to be mediated by changes in the activity of key calcium transporters and calcium sensitivity of the muscle fibers. Exercise decreases skeletal levels of taurine and this has been partially prevented by taurine supplementation.
Tyrosine is important in the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 intracellularly. The first stage is cofactored by Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate (Vitamin B6).
Tyrosine is also important for adequate synthesis of the thyroid hormones which are responsible for metabolic rate and because they are important in the synthesis of catecholamine hormones including adrenalin.
Betaine, known also as trimethylglycine (TMG) is naturally made in the body. Originally discovered in sugar beets, (hence the name Betaine) it is a methyl donor. This means that it is able to donate one of its methyl groups that can alter gene expression. Along with B6 and B12, Betaine can help breakdown homocysteine, high levels of which can damage cholesterol and artery walls.
Recent research (July 2013) has shown how exercise results in significant methylation of the genes, switching some genes on and silencing others. This makes it all the more important to have enough methyl groups available to enable this to occur effectively under exercise conditions.
Methylation is also required for the biosynthesis of CoQ10.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine pyrophosphate ) not only contributes to the normal function of the nervous system and production of neurotransmitters, but is essential for normal psychological functioning too. It is found in high concentrations in the brain and heart. The heart is very sensitive to thiamine deficiency with B1 dependent enzymes primarily affecting the heart and nervous system.
Importantly, Vitamin B1 contributes to normal energy yielding metabolism, being required as a coenzyme for the production of Acetyl Co A from pyruvate. It is also required to form alpha ketoglutarate from pyruvate which form Succinyl CoA products in the cells that enable the production of energy from food.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin-5-Phosphate) is needed in its form FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) for participation in the citric acid cycle to produce energy. Adequate doses are required to reduce tiredness and fatigue. In addition, B2 is able to protect the DNA, proteins and lipids in the cell from oxidative damage and contribute to the normal metabolism of iron, which is important for its oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin. It also plays a role in the maturation of red blood cells, again important because of their oxygen carrying capacity. Vitamin B2 also contributes to the normal functioning of the nervous system and the metabolism of neurotransmitters.
Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide) is invaluable in the production of energy in the body and adequate amounts are paramount to optimum energy levels. NAD is a coenzyme dependent on Vitamin B2 that is needed to break down carbohydrates, fats and proteins for energy. Both NAD and NADP (also B2 dependent) are vital components of pathways that make more energy molecules (ATP).
Vitamin B5 (Calcium pantothenate). Vitamin B5 is required for manufacturing (CoA) Coenzyme A and ACP (an acyl carrier protein). Both of these are necessary for energy production by metabolising fats and carbohydrates to glucose. It also aids the body’s ability to burn stored fats and for this reason is often included for sports performance. It is also vital for producing hormones, neurotransmitters, synthesising and metabolising vitamin D and helping improve mental performance. Importantly it contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate) Vitamin B6 is very important for changing glucose into energy and for converting carbohydrates and other nutrients into glucose, enabling blood glucose to be maintained within the normal range. It is also needed for normal function of the nervous system, for production of noradrenalin and those neurotransmitters involved in normal psychological function. Vitamin B6 is also essential to make haemoglobin and help increase the amount of oxygen carried by the haemoglobin, for optimising energy levels and decreasing tiredness and fatigue. Lastly B6 is involved in the regulation of testosterone synthesis.
Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin) is vital for energy production. It is needed for an enzyme, Methylmalonyl Coenzyme A Mutase (MCM) found in the mitochondria. MCM is needed to make Succinyl CoA to create energy in the citric acid cycle. Inadequate levels of Vitamin B12 result in tiredness and fatigue. In addition Vitamin B12 is needed for normal red blood cell formation, essential for carriage of oxygen to the tissues. Adequate B12 also contributes to normal functioning of the immune system and normal psychological function.
Folate (as Calcium L Methyl Folate ) is converted in the liver and intestines to 5 methytetrahydrofolate and in this form is utilised by the tissues. It is required for normal neurotransmitter production of adrenalin and noradrenalin and for normal red blood cell formation. Along with the other B vitamins, folate contributes to the reduction of tiredness and fatigue.
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