Premenstrual Tension formula (PMT Formula)
PMT is a selection of physical and emotional symptoms that a woman experiences 2-14 days before their menstrual period. Physical symptoms include bloating and weight gain, swelling of the hands and feet, breast tenderness, headaches, fatigue, skin problems, and abdominal pain. Emotional symptoms may include changes in libido, anxiety, depression, or anger, mood swings and irritability , crying for no reason, lack of concentration, confusion and increase in accidents.
8-20% of reproductive aged women are affected by moderate to severe PMT. The exact cause of PMT is not fully understood although the interaction of progesterone and estradiol and their effect on the neurotransmitters serotonin and GABA are factors. Studies performed by Anita Rapkin showed that serotonin levels dropped after ovulation in women with PMT.
An imbalance of prostaglandin synthesis may also be involved in PMT, in particular a deficiency of Prostaglandin 1 (PGE1). PGE1 is an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin that inhibits proinflammatory cytokines.
The synthesis of PGE1 requires Magnesium, Vitamin B6, Zinc, Vitamin C. It also requires linoleic acid. PMT does not exist before puberty, during pregnancy or after the menopause. It is more prevalent in obese women who exercise less. Aerobic exercise and frequent exercise appear to be more effective than strength training and irregular exercise. Women who exercised regularly showed improvement in all PMT parameters.
The symptoms usually disappear when menstruation begins.Magnesium is one of the most important and well-documented nutrients shown to help PMT.
Studies suggest magnesium may help reduce breast tenderness, bloating, migraine, and fluid retention
Repeated different studies have demonstrated red blood cell magnesium to be deficient in women suffering from PMT
Vitamin B6 is well known for its contribution to regulation of hormonal activity. An abundance of studies have been overviewed by the British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology concluding a positive effect of Vitamin B6 on decreasing whole range of PMT symptoms. One of the functions of B6 is to increase the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. Levels of serotonin have been found to be low in sufferers of PMT. Vitamin B6 is also involved in the synthesis of anti-inflammatory PGE1.
Calcium has been shown to reduce symptoms of water retention, food cravings, bloating and mood symptoms after supplementation for 3 cycles.
Zinc and Copper levels throughout 3 menstral cycles have been measured and results showed that zinc deficiency occurs in PMT patients during the luteal phase , the availability of zinc being further reduced by elevated copper. Copper is omitted from this formula for this reason
Zinc has also been shown to prevent dysmenorrhea (painful periods and cramping ) and PMT symptoms
Vitamin D3 – along with calcium, these two nutrients have a relationship with oestradiol, a form of oestrogen whose levels change during the menstrual cycle. A 10 year study involving 3000 women showed that women with the highest intake of Calcium and Vitamin D were at the lowest risk of PMT
Vitamin K2 is always included with Vitamin D3
Vitamin E ( Mixed tocotrienols ) Although vitamin E deficiency is not a contributory factor in PMT , it has been used in the treatment of PMT.
Placebo controlled randomised double blind studies published in The Journal of Reproductive Medicine showed that Vitamin E supplementation significantly improved the emotional type symptoms of PMT. More recent studies published in An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynacology demonstrated that Vitamin E given in the second half of the menstrual cycle significantly reduced dysmenorrhea. It is postulated that its mechanism of action is through its antioxidant activity.
Other natural approaches would be to consider would be Evening Primrose oil and Greek Bee Pollen