Detoxification of toxins, both endotoxins and exotoxins, occurs in the liver. Endotoxins are the end products of metabolism and those toxins produced by bacteria and viruses. Exotoxins include chemicals, such as all forms of drugs, sulphites, MSG, food additives, agrochemicals and radiation. Once detoxified, the waste products are eliminated from the body through the bile and into the faeces, through the kidneys as urine and through the skin as sweat.
There are two phases of detoxification, known as Phase 1 and Phase 2:
Is catalysed by cytochrome P450 enzymes (found in the cell membrane of hepatocytes). It involves the conversion of toxic chemicals to less harmful ones by one or more of the following:
Between 50-100 enzymes make up the cytochrome P450 system, each enzyme detoxifying certain types of chemicals although some enzymes overlap their activity. If the liver is overloaded with toxins, the Cytochrome P450 enzyme may become “induced” or upregulated, resulting in high levels of free radicals. If these are not metabolised by Phase 2 conjugation, there may be resultant damage to cellular DNA and RNA. Caffeine, alcohol, organophosphate pesticides, dioxins, cigarette smoke, sulphonamide drugs, excess oestrogens and other steroid hormones (and even saturated fats) may induce or overactivate CYP450.
Cofactors for CYP450 include vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B9 (folic acid), B12, vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, magnesium, glutathione and broccoli.
Some substances can inhibit Phase 1 enzymes:
As a general guide, if coffee stops a person sleeping, cytochrome P450 function may be impaired; if lots of coffee has no affect on sleep, then cytochrome P450 may be upregulated or overactive. People may also experience intolerance to perfumes and environmental chemicals and not be able to detoxify alcohol easily.
Also, Phase 1 detoxification enzymes decrease with age, so sensitivity to chemicals, alcohol or coffee may develop later in life where they were absent before.
Is also known as the conjugation pathway. This phase also involves detoxifying fat-soluble toxic compounds, but does so by adding certain chemical groups to that compound to make them less toxic and water soluble. There are 6-8 conjugation pathways:
If there is a toxic overload in the body, toxins may be stored as fat in fatty organs such as the brain, which can disrupt function.
Metabolics Nutrient Phase 1 & 2 contains nutrients known to be necessary to support both the Phase 1 and Phase 2 liver detoxification enzymes and we recommend it is taken with Metabolics Artichoke (see Heart Health) for its glucuronic acid content.
This product is suitable for vegetarians.
Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Citrate, Magnesium Citrate, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (capsule), Vitamin E Succinate, L-Glutamine, Calcium Pantothenate, Zinc Picolinate, L-Glycine, N.Acetyl Cysteine, Potassium Citrate, Beta Carotene Powder, Manganese Citrate, Cholecalciferol, Inositol, Niacinamide, Selenium Methionine, Choline Bitartrate, Pyridoxal 5 Phosphate, Menaquinone 7, Riboflavin 5 Phosphate, Copper Sulphate, Thiamine HCL, Methylcobalamin, Chromium Picolinate, Calcium L Methyl Folate. Adenosylcobalamin, Biotin, Potassium Iodide.