We have recently changed our source of Tocotrienols to an oil obtained from the Annatto plant in preference to that obtained from palm oil.
The annatto plant has the highest concentration of delta and gamma tocotrienol commercially available, containing 90% delta and 10% gamma tocotrienol. Annatto oil is naturally tocopherol free.
Recent research has shown that alpha tocopherol , above 15% can interfere with tocotrienol benefits both directly (Ref 1-6) and indirectly (Ref 1, 4, 7-11)and for these reasons although our last tocotrienol product contained just under 15% alpha tocopherol , Metabolics have opted for a pure product that contains no tocopherol.
In addition studies have shown delta tocotrienol to be the most potent antioxidant of the 8 vitamin E series, followed by gamma tocotrienol, then delta and gamma tocopherol ( Ref 12). Studies on the benefits of tocotrienols demonstrate an average dosage of 200mg+ so we have opted for a double strength capsule that can provide a daily intake of 2 capsules.References 1. Qureshi, A.A., et al., Dietary alpha-tocopherol attenuates the impact of gamma-tocotrienol on hepatic3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in chickens. J Nutr, 1996. 126(2): p. 389-94. 2. Guthrie, N., et al., Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr, 1997. 127: p. 544S-548S. 3. Ikeda, S., et al., Dietary alpha-tocopherol decreases alpha-tocotrienol but not gamma-tocotrienol concentration in rats. J Nutr, 2003. 133(2): p. 428-34. 4. Khor, H.T. and T.T. Ng, Effects of administration of alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols on serum lipids and liver HMG CoA reductase activity. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000. 51 Suppl: p. S3-11. 5. Shibata, A., et al., alpha-Tocopherol attenuates the cytotoxic effect of delta-tocotrienol in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2010. 6. Sontag, T.J. and R.S. Parker, Influence of major structural features of tocopherols and tocotrienols on their omega-oxidation by tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. J Lipid Res, 2007. 48(5): p. 1090-8. 7. Brigelius-Flohe, R., Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by vitamin E. J Plant Physiol, 2005. 162(7): p. 797-802. 8. Brigelius-Flohe, R., Adverse effects of vitamin E by induction of drug metabolism. Genes Nutr, 2007. 2(3): p. 249-56. 9. Fujita, K., et al., Vitamin E decreases bone mass by stimulating osteoclast fusion. Nat Med, 2012. 18(4): p. 589-94. 10. Klein, E.A., et al., Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Jama, 2011. 306(14): p. 1549-56. 12. Muller, L., K. Theile, and V. Bohm, In vitro antioxidant activity of tocopherols and tocotrienols and comparison of vitamin E concentration and lipophilic antioxidant capacity in human plasma. Mol Nutr Food Res, 2010. 54(5): p. 731-42.
Bovine Gelatin, Glycerin, Purified Water.