Double Strength Tocotrienols ( 125mg)
Metabolics Vitamin E Tocotrienols is manufactured with tocotrienols sourced from the Annatto plant in preference to that obtained from palm oil; the annatto plant has the highest concentration of delta and gamma tocotrienol commercially available, containing 90% delta and 10% gamma tocotrienol. Annatto oil is naturally tocopherol free.
Recent research has shown that alpha tocopherol , above 15% can interfere with tocotrienol benefits both directly (Ref 1-6) and indirectly (Ref 1, 4, 7-11)and for these reasons although our last tocotrienol product contained just under 15% alpha tocopherol , Metabolics have opted for a pure product that contains no tocopherol.
In addition studies have shown delta tocotrienol to be the most potent antioxidant of the 8 vitamin E series, followed by gamma tocotrienol, then delta and gamma tocopherol ( Ref 12). Studies on the benefits of tocotrienols demonstrate an average dosage of 200mg+ so we have opted for a double strength capsule that can provide a daily intake of 2 capsules.
References 1. Qureshi, A.A., et al., Dietary alpha-tocopherol attenuates the impact of gamma-tocotrienol on hepatic3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in chickens. J Nutr, 1996. 126(2): p. 389-94. 2. Guthrie, N., et al., Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and -positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm oil tocotrienols and tamoxifen, alone and in combination. J Nutr, 1997. 127: p. 544S-548S. 3. Ikeda, S., et al., Dietary alpha-tocopherol decreases alpha-tocotrienol but not gamma-tocotrienol concentration in rats. J Nutr, 2003. 133(2): p. 428-34. 4. Khor, H.T. and T.T. Ng, Effects of administration of alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols on serum lipids and liver HMG CoA reductase activity. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000. 51 Suppl: p. S3-11. 5. Shibata, A., et al., alpha-Tocopherol attenuates the cytotoxic effect of delta-tocotrienol in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2010. 6. Sontag, T.J. and R.S. Parker, Influence of major structural features of tocopherols and tocotrienols on their omega-oxidation by tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase. J Lipid Res, 2007. 48(5): p. 1090-8. 7. Brigelius-Flohe, R., Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by vitamin E. J Plant Physiol, 2005. 162(7): p. 797-802. 8. Brigelius-Flohe, R., Adverse effects of vitamin E by induction of drug metabolism. Genes Nutr, 2007. 2(3): p. 249-56. 9. Fujita, K., et al., Vitamin E decreases bone mass by stimulating osteoclast fusion. Nat Med, 2012. 18(4): p. 589-94. 10. Klein, E.A., et al., Vitamin E and the risk of prostate cancer: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). Jama, 2011. 306(14): p. 1549-56. 12. Muller, L., K. Theile, and V. Bohm, In vitro antioxidant activity of tocopherols and tocotrienols and comparison of vitamin E concentration and lipophilic antioxidant capacity in human plasma. Mol Nutr Food Res, 2010. 54(5): p. 731-42.
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